The Unintended Consequences of Grades

Teachers Going Gradeless

This post originally appeared on the Pennsylvania Teachers Advisory Committee (PTAC) Blog. PTAC endeavors to connect the voices of highly-recognized teachers in Pennsylvania with educational decision makers.

About eight years ago an administrator started a faculty meeting by asking the question, “Why are so many of our students unable to pass the state Keystone exams if their report card grades show them doing well in their classes?”

As the chair of the science department, I made this question the driving force behind the discussions at our next few department meetings. What we discovered was that our grading practices included many instances of giving credit for completion of work, participation, and effort.

In many cases, this was artificially inflating our grades and ensuring the feedback that we were giving to students and parents was not reflective of what children actually knew about the science content they were supposed to be…

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My Year as a Student


I often tell my students that there is no such thing as a finish line to reading, writing or learning…there’s just no end. That, of course, is a choice, as people can choose to not read and write. But I always hope to continue to model the concept of life-long learning to my students.

Teaching is an art; there’s always room to learn new ideas, to listen for the whispered voice that lies beneath the din.

This past school year (’17-’18), my reading focus (call it my self-directed professional development) was centered, mainly, on assessment. I read these articles, abstracts, blog posts, etc., in my continuing attempt to learn more about the art of teaching:

But What if They Don’t Read All of the Words?   by Scott Bayer (@lyricalswords)

Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgement (T. Guskey & L.A. Jung. Also highly recommend Guskey’s “Computerized Gradebooks and the Myth of Objectivity”)

A Case for Standards-Based Grading and Reporting (K. O’Connor)

Five Obstacles to Grading Reform (T. Guskey)

What teachers really need to know about formative assessment (L. Greenstein)

It’s time to stop averaging grades (R. Wormeli)

What’s worth fighting against in grading? (D. Reeves, L.A. Jung, K. O’Connor)

Assessment for Learning Defined (R. Stiggins)

Using student involved classroom assessment to close achievement gaps (R. Stiggins, J. Chappuis)

Not reading: the 800-pound mockingbird in the classroom (W. Broz)

What a difference a word makes  [Assessment FOR learning rather than assessment OF learning)  (R. Stiggins, J. Chappuis)

How making thinking visible helps teachers and students (A. November)

Helping students understand assessment (J. Chappuis)

How Am I Doing? (J. Chappuis)

Should Formative Assessments Be Graded? (L. Heitin)

The Value of Using Podcasts in Class (M. Godsey)

Inside the podcast brain: why do do audio stories captivate? (T. Wen)

Teaching To Kill a Mockingbird today: coming to terms with race, racism, and America’s novel (M. Macaluso)

The Case Against the Zero – (D. Reeves)

The Case Against Percentage Grades – (T. Guskey)

Bringing Back Teachers’ Professional Judgment in the Era of Computerized Grading Systems (K. O’Connor)

What Did I Learn?

  • I still have more to learn in terms of assessing students in an accurate and equitable way. I don’t think that there’s a finish line in figuring out ways to help students improve
  • There’s a lot to proper assessment design and education has a ways to go to be more accurate. There’s much hand-wringing (that’s warranted) surrounding issues of cheating that could be improved by better systems of assessment.
  • Assessments can be designed in a way to help reduce the concept that school is just about students “trying to get points.” (This is a major hurdle to clear). Teachers need to be talking to each other about what they can do to continue to create learning environments which encourage thinking and learning while countering the “gamification” of school. I’m all for learning “hacks,” but if the hack involves shortcuts that cut out learning, then educators need to create better/more authentic assessments
  • Going against the grain isn’t easy. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.”~Friedrich Nietzsche. Moving away from tradition methods of grading and assessment design gets a lot of people nervous as it’s not what they are used to. There’s a lot of “this is how we’ve always done it” in education and there’s a lot of ideas in education that deserve scrutiny.

Where to Go From Here?

Continue to learn and and apply:  my students today are not the same ones as I taught 5 years ago.

Reflect more. This is a major gap in my learning journey.

Write more: see above.


(No pithy aphorism to end this blog.)


Going Gradeless & Robert Frost


It was round about the third email I had received, all past 2 am on a school night last year, that I decided that I had had enough.

Mind you, I wasn’t awake to see these emails, but one of my students was (and the student was a freshman). 14 years old, up emailing a teacher, and about the latest grade crisis.

Not to diminish the anxiety of the student, but at the time their grade was about a 95%. My initial not-quite-safe-for-work response was: What? The? Heck? (Or something close to that).

Following thought leaders like Arthur Chiaravalli , Sarah DonovanMonte Syrie, Sarah Zerwin and Cristi Julsrud, I have decided to ditch grades this year – as much as possible (the whole “building an airplane while it’s in the air” thing, you know). Though I still need to give a grade three times a year (two progress reports and a final grade for the semester), I’m trying to keep the focus on the learning and not so much on the grade (A focus on grades or grading can yield a series of negative outcomes).

I had started the year trying to at least delay grades, but then publishing a just a few, which only intensified students’ interest/awareness of those grades (Sigh; not off to a good start for the semester).

I received an email recently from one of my students who wanted to talk about their grade. It felt good to email the student, “If you’d like to talk about making progress toward learning goals, that would be great. But if you want to talk about your grade, I’m afraid I wouldn’t have much to say.” Small steps.

Ah yes, the difference between the Ideal and the Real

So, there’s how I pictured the grading conferences and then there’s what happened.

What happened was that they revealed how far I still have to go in properly preparing students and myself as, heading through my first end-of-the-semester conferences, I realized I’ve made some missteps and mistakes:

  • I started much too late in the semester, causing me to rush through some conferences
  • Perhaps my biggest mistake: not giving students enough tools to come into the conference prepared. Students are still saying phrases about work ethic and other compliance-based thought processes (“I turned in all my work”). This is goal #1 to fix in the spring semester. At the start of the year, we had a big class discussion where two senior classes identified, essentially,  the most important part of getting an A was “turning in all the work.” A solitary voice spoke up and noted that quality was important. Out of nearly 70 students, many heading off to “competitive” colleges, and just 1 mentioned the quality of work. #changeisdifficult   

A few things have gone well, but still need improvement:

  • Making the focus on learning. A few students did note their best work was done only after learning how to better use feedback.
  • A few students talked about doing their best work at the end of the semester (perhaps peaking at the end, like a track athlete peaking as they head into league finals?)

Frost’s “Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening”

“And miles to go before I sleep” is the iconic line in Robert Frost’s poem. My process of going gradeless makes me think of this line. Trudging through snow is a perversely pleasant task. There are miles to go for me as I figure out how to be better at my profession; lots of them. At times, the snow will be deep, but it’s worth it.

My students inspire me to do better so they can get the experience that they all deserve. Yes, “The woods are lovely, dark and deep,” which sounds just fine.  




A Lesson on Beautiful Sentences

moving writers

A Lesson on Beautiful Sentences

There is so much ugliness in the world. Enough to last us all for a good long while. As I was adjusting my classes this week, I thought, why not beauty?

My AP students have been fixated on the weird and wonderful language in Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five. And frankly, I’m not over it, have never been over it, will never be over it. Each year, I teach this novel and find some new, exciting sentence I get all shivery and weird over. Each year, my students and I tag the quotable, the tattoo-able, and the indelible.

After some student requests for mini lessons that “focus on beautiful language,” I decided that there was no better moment than the present.

So, here’s what we did…

First, I asked students: What makes a sentence beautiful?

I gave them a few minutes of notebook time to write down their thoughts. After…

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2017 Interest Inventory: The Students pose questions


Inspired by David Theriault – @davidtedu – I started off the  ’16-’17 school year with a series of questions to my classes that would allow me to get to know them. Teachers who invest time to get to know their students better work together with their students to create a better environment in the classroom. 

One of the questions is “If you want, you can ask me a question.” I’ll then choose a handful of those student-generated questions and answer them.

Here’s my responses to the 16-17 classes.

Here’s this year’s edition:

Are you nervous to work with us?

Not at all. I love teaching.

Why did you choose to become an English teacher? (do you teach? what do you get out of it?)

Check out the link to last year’s responses

Will you play me 1 on 1 in a pickup game of basketball?

Only if you want to lose. I got game. I got mad skills.  #who’snext?

Will you play Jonathan in a pick-up game of basketball?
See the above answer

If you had to recommend only one book for a 12th grader to read, what would it be?

Again, check out last year’s post

This is a tough question. It’s like picking your favorite moment from an entire championship season (Warriors, Giants, 49ers): there’s too many great/thrilling moments. Or maybe it’s like picking your favorite Jelly Belly flavor when you absolutely love 15 different flavors (but, make no mistake, there a several Jelly Belly flavors that are hideous). 

In general, some books are just seriously entertaining and some are “deep” and thought provoking. “The Looming Tower” by Lawrence Wright was mesmerizing. (It’s an account of the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers and the rise of Al Qaeda). It’s fascinating, frustrating (thanks to the FBI & CIA for not working together) and completely terrifying.

You want good fiction? Try “Beach Music”  by Pat Conroy. He’s a fantastic story teller.

Fairly short post but the ’17-’18 kinda came soft into the paint (meaning = a decent percentage of students didn’t do the Interest Inventory).

Don’t go soft in the paint


The Summer of Now and Next

Summer 2017 reading


Among one of the too many edu-blogs that I read I recently come across a photo of a teacher who prints out what she is currently learning and tapes it to the door frame on the outside of her classroom so her students can see it when they walk in.

I first came across the idea of encouraging others (teachers, administrators, etc.) to observe a teacher just for the sake of getting feedback from Robert Kaplinsky. He started the #Observeme (click to see his blog post about it) campaign where he posts a few goals outside his classroom and invites others in to see if those goals are being met while he is teaching. (Check out the hashtag on Twitter to see what teachers are doing).

I like that idea. It needs to happen this year for me.


So, what’s new?

I’ve invested a lot of my professional reading this summer to a fairly interesting idea. It is very much a “so far” type of idea. As in, here’s what I’ve read/thought about and tried so far. It’s a bit similar to the “not yet” concept I like to repeat – almost as a mantra – to students. You haven’t learned something “yet.” Or, when I am coaching whatever sport I happen to be at any one time (soccer, basketball, baseball), I encourage the athletes to keep trying a new idea or a new move and that it will take time to learn it.  


So, how does a gradeless class sound?

Going Gradeless. This idea has me very excited with some uncertainty. Gradeless doesn’t mean not giving any grades as every teacher has to, in the least, assign a grade for every progress report. Per our teacher contract, a grade needs to be assigned 3 times a semester.

What going gradeless means is a fairly radical shift from grading, which is fraught with of all sorts of issues, to learning.

By the way:

  1. There’s grading issues at Harvard
  2. The median grade at Harvard is an A-.
  3. More Harvard: “In 1969, 7 percent of undergraduates had grades of A- or higher in contrast to 41 percent now(So, there’s more smart students at Harvard now?)
  4. Lastly, but not a Harvard note, is this: grade inflation is just not at college. As SAT scores continue to drop, the average high school GPA in the USA: 3.38. (So, more students are doing HW more often, with better results?)


What is learning and how do you measure it?

This is the hard part, but this is where the radical shift in education needs to go. This is, hopefully, at the heart of many conversations between among teachers, and between teachers, students and their families (or, at least where the conversations need to be).

A gradeless classroom will focus on learning. The exciting thing, to me (natch), is that going gradeless asks a lot out of the students. This is that “rigor” thing that education strives for. A gradeless classroom asks that students argue for their grades. But before students think “I’m great at arguing” or “I hate confrontation” that’s not what it is about. This means students:

  1. Have to understand the standards.  
  2. Identify how and where, specifically, they have met those standards throughout the semester, or where (on a continuum) they fall in their attempts to meet the standards.

As this is still a fairly new concept to me, I’ve come to terms with just how much more I’ll need to read, discuss (also with students) and learn about before I’m comfortable making the complete switch.

In the Weeds: Fun with 20% Projects


Take a map and you (probably) won’t get lost


Well now…that didn’t go quite as planned.

The original title of this post was about failing but assessing to see where things went wrong. Keeping-the-good/learning-from-the-bad kind of a tone.

But I liked the idea and imagery of being a bit lost in the weeds a bit more. Maybe it’s more poetic yet still able to capture some my experiences with my seniors classes last year. 

For the ’16-’17 school year, I tried something new with my senior English classes, a 20% Time project, something like this, this or this. The concept is that students have a year-long project where, usually (but not always), they develop some sort of  service project or maybe they even create something (a product). The project does not have to be a community service, where students volunteer their time, etc, but many choose that route. (Not that there’s anything wrong with service, but too many students took that option too easily and created a project that was lacking depth and authenticity). Some also students took the route of learning something new (which, technically, is more of a Genius Hour type of project). And, yes, some students took the service option and created unique experiences. 

At the end of the year, students gave a presentation where they spoke about their project and what they learned.

Much of the idea behind the project is that it is student directed. Student choice and voice is something that I’m trying to get better at building into the classroom.   

Into The Wilderness

Convict Lake

I wandered into the wilderness, so to speak, with a colleague who was also boldly going into educational experiences neither of us had previously experienced.  

And it was…just ok.

Madeline Will has written about this very process in Education Week. In her article “What Happens When Students Design Their Own Assessments?” she writes, “Initially…a lot of the projects were ‘fluff,’ while teachers learned how to incorporate meaty content and the state standards into students’ projects.”

I can definitely say “yes, this happened.”

Of course, some students had very original and authentic learning experiences, and for that I felt privileged to be a part of the audience when they shared their experiences.   

What to do next time?

  1. I need to be better about having the students peer assess and self assess. They’re going to, basically, need to successfully argue (just as they might in an essay) for the grade they think they have earned. This puts the concept of the students being in charge of articulating their own learning. This needs to be taught – directly – starting at the beginning of the school year. It’ll also align with an increase of peer feedback (hello, Starr Sackstein) I want to be emphasizing this year as well.
  2. I’m not sure how to do this yet, but I need to create some sort of process that (hopefully) has more students choose/create projects that are more original and authentic, avoiding the projects that were nothing but “fluff.” This is a huge challenge. It’s like when we English teachers want students to produce more original writing that has more of an independent and unique voice. Asking students to do this is easy; creating the conditions for this to happen is the challenge.   
  3. There’s easily a step 3, 4 & 5 for what I need to be better at for the ’17-’18 school year for this project. Time spent in conversation with my intrepid 205 Time colleague @mrsbnakamura could yield some ideas.


Being in a thicket of weeds isn’t a bad thing. In John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir, he writes “I only went out for a walk and finally concluded to stay out till sundown, for going out, I found, was really going in.”  


The 4 C’s and folders

Folders. (Did I just begin with the dreaded “1-word opener?” Yes. I. Did.).

Not just folders, but folders in English class.


Folders: not just a tool to store papers, but a killer image to begin a blog post. (#truthbomb)

Seventeen years into the 21st century, it feels like teaching is starting to pay much more attention to the 4 Cs (though there is much more growth in this area that still needs to happen):

Student Rights & Empathy

familyIdeally, I’d like to think that critical thinking and communication are already happening in any classroom, especially an English class. However,  when it comes to collaboration and creativity, a traditional approach to teaching (a teacher-centered/conservative-pedagogical approach) does not, ironically and sadly, create enough space for that to happen.

It’s the 21st C – all 4 Cs need to be a mandatory part of education; it should be a student right.

I had my students “compete” with Dan Ryder’s Folder Challenge – “How Can We Bring Joy to Others?” (Twitter handle @wickedDecent and he’s a must follow). The focus of the experience is to have students practice empathy as a skill, a process where they have to be mindful of a “user.” We’re all users and designers; getting students to think of themselves in this context is important. Getting them to think of themselves of creating something for  a user, creators of something other than “a typical response to literature” (think: essay) is better. And, ideally: fun. (Note: teachers say this will be fun” and, usually, it really isn’t to students. The Folder Challenge is actually fun).

With the constraints of time (20 minutes), and a few variables/supplies (folder, 4 paper clips, pens, pencils, glue/tape, etc…), the focus is on students also spending time interviewing a partner on “what brings them joy?” (Also, “what takes it away?”). From there, it’s time to make.

Making Means Thinking; Thinking = Time


People are socialized that artistry is an innate skill, a gift, something that’s to be admired in others, with many claiming “I’m just not artistic.” Well, no one learns how to breath. It just is; it’s autonomic. As far as art is concerned, maybe it’s not quite autonomic, but it’s natural for humans. If not, then how did prehistoric humans in Europe learn? There were no art centers throughout France or Spain. (By the way, most of the cave painters were women. You can tell by finger length).

Creativity comes from being creative. In other words, just do it. Getting better at turning a double play comes from working on many skills. In baseball, it’s called practice. This is both practice and creativity in action. San Francisco Giants shortstop Brandon Crawford had to both work at this and play around enough to link the two ideas together. It’s fun for Crawford, it’s practice and practice means spending time on a craft.

The Folder Challenge

poolThis year, I’m trying something new for my students. We’re working on a 20% time project, a year-long attempt at a student-led project that will have students, in the words of super-teacher and “sharer” extraordinaire David Theriault, “Feed a Need.” (@DavidTedu is also a must follow on Twitter. His blog is changing my teaching practice).

To prepare for the project, I read Kevin Brookhouser’s “The 20 Time Project” book over the summer. I’ll need to re-read the book this summer as this year is, essentially, my primary iteration at the project. (Effective projects ask designers to iterate, iterate and iterate). Basically, I know that I’ve had some missteps and will look to improve upon those for next year’s classes.

Something that I should have done much earlier in the year is the folder challenge. Of course, first came the handshake challenge. More than anything else, I just thought it would be fun for my students to use it as a warm-up, especially since I picked the partners. (I gave students 2 minutes to create an “awesome” handshake, something close to what you can see in the 21 Pilots “Stressed Out” video). Right away, however, it gave the students a challenge to solve based upon a quick conversation between partners.

From there, they got 20 minutes to interview and create.

I thought it was totally worth it. I forgot to ask my students if they thought it was worth it. (Asking students to reflect/assess my lessons is an area I want to improve). But, I did see smiles on faces during class. That’s some kind of an assessment.

All 4 Cs? Yep.

So….this has what, exactly, do to with writing an essay?

But I don’t teach a literature class; never have in 19 years. I teach a language arts class. Yes, it’s called “English,” but if that’s only defined as a class where you write essays and most likely prepare students with only soul-crushing, non-creative, 5-paragraph essays; have fun with that!  (I’ll tackle the 5-paragraph essay problem – written about here, here, here, and here – in another post in the future.)

The folder challenge asks students to consider what writers & thinkers have been doing since Ancient Greece: consider audience, purpose and message. (They study the heck out of that in an AP Language class. College classes, too).

If I can get my students to consider the “Rhetorical Triangle” in a way that gets them to incorporate the 4C’s of 21st Century education, then that’s a good day.

– 30 –

“I got a question, as serious as…”

Actually, you all (my students) had questions, so I thought it would be easy to answer them here.

(Bonus points if you know the lyric that’s the title of this post. You probably don’t.)

There were a good amount of interesting questions from my classes.

“What’s your favorite hobby/pastime/what do you do in your free time?”

Wow, that’s tough. There’s a lot of things I love to do: ride my bike (cycling), coach sports (baseball, basketball, soccer), listen to music/podcasts, cook, hang out with my kids and wife, eat too many cookies, exercise, learn. I like to geek out with my 8-year daughter when we listen to her favorite music. We loving singing  “Roar” by Katherine Perry. #socute

Why did you choose to be an English teacher?

After working as a journalist (a reporter/writer for something called a “newspaper” that people used to read everyday) for about 5 years, I was growing unsatisfied with that career. I had the opportunity to help out in high school newspaper class and I really enjoyed the interactions with the students. I had also been putting a lot of thought into the idea of coaching high school basketball, so it was a natural fit to go into teaching high school English.

“What is the most important thing in your life and why?”

My family. Kinda obvious.

“What’s your favorite meme?”

Ermahgerd is pretty sweet. Here’s a neat story about that person.

“Can you surf?”

Can I surf? I’m from Santa Cruz. (Represent!) So, yes…I know surf.

Actually, I don’t know Kung Fu; wish I did.







“What college did you attend?”

My college path was rather circuitous. I spent 4 years at Cabrillo junior college as I wasn’t ready to be a college student after high school graduation. It’s a bit rough to do something you aren’t ready for. Once I got my act together, I did pretty well. [But my first three semesters were really messy; like almost-getting-kicked-out-of-school messy because I wasn’t ready to be a serious student.] I then transferred and graduated with my bachelor’s degree from Sacramento State, earned my teaching credential from San Jose State and took a few literature classes along the way at UC Santa Cruz.

“Who’s your favorite musical artist?”

Waaaaaaay to hard to narrow it down to one. Let’s see…Prince, The Beastie Boys, Oingo Boingo, Public Enemy, Slightly Stoopid, The Beatles, Devo, Bob Marley, The Blues Brothers, Tchaikovsky, Skankin Pickle, Streetlight Manifesto, The Budos Band, RATM, Primus…

“Who’s your favorite author/book?”

Again, this is tough.

Try these sometime: Authors: Terry Southern, Shakespeare, James Ellroy, Steinbeck, Books: Beach Music, Cutting For Stone, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Grapes of Wrath, You Can’t Win…

“What is the key to success in your class?”

Ask questions. Be organized (still a challenge for me). Honesty. Focus on what’s important.

“Where would you travel if you could go anywhere in the world”

Ireland. My peoples.

“You look a lot like Benedict Cumberbatch”

Actually, I get that a lot. Maybe I can be his stunt double?

“How long have you been teaching seniors/How long have you been at Leigh?”

In my 19 years at Leigh, I have taught seniors for 18 years. Once, I had all seniors

“How did you get over your nervousness of public speaking?”

I like this question. Honestly, if I had to speak in front of a bunch of my peers or other adults, I might be a bit uncomfortable, but nowhere like when I was young. I got over it by just not caring any more about being nervous. That and performing in a band. Like at clubs and such. (Another story for another time).

What years did you coach Leigh girl’s basketball?

I coached the boys hoops team from 1999-2001 and the girls team from 2001-2004. I am the first coach of the girls basketball team at LHS to win 20 games #humblebrag. My other claim to fame as the girls coach? We never lost by more than 40 points when we played Mitty. #perspective

If you could do anything other than being a teacher what would you do?

I’d like to be a strength and conditioning coach (like a trainer but it’s a job that requires more education) for a high school.

What is your favorite color?

Blue. Of course. Come on, you know you want to click on it – it’s not like you have to answer 5 questions or anything hard like that.

“What is your favorite pie?”



My habit

Oh, don’t worry, it’s nothing bad.

Nothing like vice or anything.

I mean, of course I have vices: ice cream, HBO binge watching, cookies: you know, the good stuff. (Thought: maybe not too good for my waistline).

These look really, really good

Time to go all English teacher on you

“Habit” comes from a Latin word meaning “condition” or “appearance.” Think of how the word “habit” is used to describe a priest’s or nun’s clothing, and you’ve got a sense of the original meaning.

The more common meaning is to denote “physical or mental constitution” or an acquired behavior. Eating cookies – habitually – is a pretty good life goal. I mean, after all, they’re so good, especially when cooked at home. Unfortunately, eating cookies on a frequent basis is too easy as the store (several stores) is not that difficult to reach.

Done is better than perfect

Developing good habits: these – can be – hard.


Reading more.

Being a better listener.

Volunteering in my community.

And, the point of this post, publishing online more often.

Writing to write – the act, the exercise – is valuable. Get it on paper/online; put the paint on the canvas or arrange the flowers in the vase. Just, well, do it. Practice does not make perfect – it makes permanent. The act, the habit of not writing – or not posting online – makes it easier to not post.

In another lifetime, I was a newspaper reporter. I believe that a bit of an inaccurate description. I’ve always been partial to thinking of myself as a writer. Certainly not in the sense of Hemingway,  Dorothy Parker, or Terry Southern, but I thought of a reporter as an investigator, (ideally) striving, in whatever small way, to help the community. I just wrote. Oh, I talked to people, but I wasn’t an investigator; I just wrote, and did it so much that I  got good at it. Not Jessica Silver-Greenberg good, but “local” good.

I improved (it was “unpolished” at first) because it became a habit. Yes, it was my “job.” But, my habit was to write, habitually, daily, often; write, edit, polish, re-write (when time). It was also interesting writing with my editor standing over my shoulder, looking at a watch and saying, “you’ve got 10 minutes to finish or it doesn’t make the paper.”

I’ll (usually) ask my students to write about 200 words for an informal blog post, especially early on in the school year. Some, of course, will be longer. Much longer. Maybe even some will be a bit shorter. But once we develop the habit of publishing online, getting that content, those ideas, that creativity and innovation, out to others will be a good habit.


— Gill